AKC Toy Group
The Pomeranian was originally descended from the ancient Spitz breeds of the far north that were brought to Europe. Pom ancestors weighed up to 30 lbs. Marie Antoinette, Emile Zola, and Mozart all owned Pomeranians. In the late 1800s, Queen Victoria became a Pomeranian fancier and established her own kennel for their breeding. She showed her dogs with some success, making the breed very popular in England. Because Queen Victoria preferred smaller dogs, many breeders began selecting for small size. Now the Pomeranian has been bred down from his original size to a customary 4 to 5 lbs. The Pomeranian’s intelligence and talent for showmanship have made him a superior circus performer. Today’s Pomeranian is primarily a loving companion and beautiful show dog.
The Pomeranian is a tiny, fluffy dog of Spitz type with a wedge-shaped head and small, pointed, erect ears. Some have faces that breeders liken to a fox; others have baby-doll or “pansy” faces. The skull is a bit rounded, but not domed. All have bright, dark, almond-shaped eyes and a dark or self-colored (matching the coat) nose and eye rims. The teeth should meet in a scissors bite. The tail is plumed and fans forward over the back. There is an abundant ruff around the neck and chest area. The body is slightly shorter than it is tall, and the brisket reaches to the elbows. The profuse stand-off double coat usually comes in solid colors. Any solid color is allowed, but the most common are red, orange, white or cream, blue, brown, or black. Sometimes the coat is parti-colored (white with colored markings), black and tan, or wolf or orange sable. The outer coat is long, straight, and harsh, and the undercoat is soft and dense. The ideal weight is 4 to 6 lbs.
- Height: Averages 6 in.
- Size: Very small
- Weight: 3 to 7 lbs.
- Availability: Very popular
- Talents: Watchdog, agility, and performing tricks
Not recommended for young children. Might be snappish. Good companion for elderly people. Generally good with other pets if properly introduced. One of the most independent of the Toys. Newborn pups are very tiny and fragile. Small females often need Caesarean section deliveries. Pomeranians might be picky eaters, but most tend to overeat and become fat. Some bloodlines are prone to slipped stifle, dislocated patella (kneecap), heart and skin problems, and eye infections. Because Pomeranians are prone to early tooth loss, feeding dry food is recommended to help keep teeth and gums in good condition. Be sure the veterinarian also keeps the dog’s teeth clean. Keep the dog quiet in hot weather to avoid overheating. The Pomeranian is very popular, so many poorly bred animals are bred to satisfy the demand. Purchase only from a reputable breeder.
Willful, bold, loving, temperamental. An extroverted, lively little dog who thinks he’s big. Excellent watchdog with a resonant bark. Proud and happy. Alert, curious, and busy. Rather sharp tempered. Can be aggressive with other animals—introduce the Pomeranian and other pets slowly and with supervision. Intelligent, but needs a firm hand in training. Good at learning tricks. The Pomeranian must know the owner is the boss, or he will not listen. This breed might become too demanding if the owner allows it!
- Children: Best with older, considerate children
- Friendliness: Reserved with strangers
- Trainability: Slightly difficult to train
- Independence: Fairly independent
- Dominance: High
- Other Pets: Generally good with other pets
- Combativeness: Tends to be fairly dog-aggressive
- Noise: Likes to bark
- Indoors: Very active indoors
- Owner: Good for novice owners
- Grooming: Regular grooming needed
- Trimming and Stripping: Some trimming or stripping (little skill required)
- Coat: Fluffy coat
- Shedding: Constant shedder
- Exercise: Very little exercise needed
- Jogging: A poor jogging companion
- Apartments: Good for apartment living
- Outdoor Space: Does all right without a yard
- Climate: Prefers cool climates
- Longevity: Moderate (12 to 15 years)